Dating origin orchidaceae
While some have single flowers, most have inflorescences with multiple flowers arranged around a stalk.
The flowers are pollinated by insects, in some cases by birds, and it is common for flowers to have petals modified into perches or guides for their pollinators.
Orchids live in nearly all ecosystems around the world except glaciers, true desert and open water, although tropical areas especially in Asia, Africa and the Americas are the hot spots of diversity.
Most grow as epiphytes on other plants, rocks or static objects for support and derive their nutrients and water from the atmosphere and debris, however many species grow in the ground in forest or grassland areas. Some, such as species in the subfamily is only 3-4 mm (0.16-0.2 inches) tall. Orchids are monocots, perennial herbs with simple leaves and parallel veins, and are well known for the rich diversity of their flower structures.
The Orchidaceae, known as the orchid family, underwent a spectacularly diverse radiation since its late Cretaceous origin 83-75 million years ago to become one of the two most speciose plant families around today (the other being the Asteraceae), and make up more than one third of monocot species (Ramírez et al. Many morphological and molecular studies break down the family into five monophyletic subfamilies: Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, Epidendroideae, Orchidoideae, and Vanilloideae, of which Epidendroideae is by far the largest, containing about 3/5 of orchid species (see references listed at the Orchid Tree, Florida Museum of Natural History: ATOLrefs.htm; Cameron 1999 and references therein; Williams 2013; The Plant List 2010).
Taxonomy of the orchid family is difficult and dynamic, because it is so large (now approximately 27,000 accepted species) and many new species are described annually (see references listed at the Orchid Tree, Florida Museum of Natural History: ATOLrefs.htm; Cameron 1999 and references therein; Williams 2013).
caribea within the extant subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae). caribea to calibrate a molecular phylogenetic tree of the Orchidaceae.Your access to the NCBI website at gov has been temporarily blocked due to a possible misuse/abuse situation involving your site.This is not an indication of a security issue such as a virus or attack.Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident, shared derived characteristics, or "apomorphies".
The temporal origin and diversification of orchids (family Orchidaceae) has been subject to intense debate in the last decade.